10 JavaScript Interview Questions and Answers in 2023

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As the world of web development continues to evolve, so too do the questions asked in JavaScript interviews. With the ever-changing landscape of the web, it is important to stay up to date on the latest trends and technologies. In this blog post, we will explore 10 of the most common JavaScript interview questions and answers for the year 2023. We will provide a brief overview of each question and provide an in-depth answer to help you prepare for your next JavaScript interview.

1. Describe the differences between ES5 and ES6.

ES5 (ECMAScript 5) is the fifth version of the ECMAScript language, which is the language that JavaScript is based on. ES6 (ECMAScript 6) is the sixth version of the language.

The main differences between ES5 and ES6 are:

1. Syntax: ES6 introduces a number of new syntax features, such as arrow functions, classes, template literals, and more. These features make code more concise and easier to read.

2. Modules: ES6 introduces a new way of organizing code into modules. Modules allow developers to break up their code into smaller, more manageable pieces.

3. Promises: ES6 introduces a new way of handling asynchronous operations called Promises. Promises make it easier to write asynchronous code and handle errors.

4. Iterators and Generators: ES6 introduces a new way of iterating over collections of data called iterators. Generators are a special type of iterator that can be used to create custom iterators.

5. Maps and Sets: ES6 introduces two new data structures, Maps and Sets. Maps are key-value pairs, while Sets are collections of unique values.

6. Destructuring: ES6 introduces a new way of extracting values from objects and arrays called destructuring. Destructuring makes it easier to work with complex data structures.

7. Default Parameters: ES6 introduces a new way of setting default values for function parameters. This makes it easier to write functions that can be called with different sets of parameters.

8. Spread Operator: ES6 introduces a new operator called the spread operator. The spread operator makes it easier to work with arrays and objects.

9. Proxies: ES6 introduces a new way of intercepting and modifying operations on objects called proxies. Proxies make it easier to create custom objects with custom behavior.


2. Explain the concept of prototypal inheritance in JavaScript.

Prototypal inheritance is a type of object-oriented programming language that is used in JavaScript. It is based on the concept of prototypes, which are objects that serve as templates for other objects. In JavaScript, objects can inherit properties and methods from other objects, which is known as prototypal inheritance.

Prototypal inheritance works by creating a prototype object that contains the properties and methods that will be inherited by other objects. This prototype object is then used as a template for creating new objects. When a new object is created, it will inherit the properties and methods from the prototype object.

In JavaScript, the prototype object is created using the Object.create() method. This method takes an object as an argument and creates a new object that inherits the properties and methods from the argument object.

For example, let's say we have a prototype object called "Person" that contains the properties "name" and "age". We can then create a new object called "John" that inherits the properties and methods from the "Person" prototype object.

In this way, prototypal inheritance allows us to create objects that share the same properties and methods without having to duplicate code. This makes it easier to maintain and update code, as changes to the prototype object will be reflected in all objects that inherit from it.


3. What is the purpose of the 'this' keyword in JavaScript?

The 'this' keyword in JavaScript is used to refer to the object that is executing the current function. It is a very important keyword in JavaScript because it allows you to access the properties and methods of an object from within the object itself. It is also used to refer to the object that is executing the current function, which can be useful when you need to access properties or methods of the object from outside the object. For example, if you have a function that is part of an object, you can use the 'this' keyword to refer to the object itself and access its properties or methods. Additionally, the 'this' keyword can be used to refer to the global object, which is the window object in the browser. This can be useful when you need to access global variables or functions from within a function.


4. How do you handle asynchronous programming in JavaScript?

Asynchronous programming in JavaScript is a powerful tool for creating responsive and efficient applications. It allows us to execute code in the background without blocking the main thread, which can improve the performance of our applications.

To handle asynchronous programming in JavaScript, I typically use the async/await syntax. This syntax allows us to write asynchronous code that looks and behaves like synchronous code. It also makes it easier to read and debug our code.

I also use Promises to handle asynchronous programming. Promises are objects that represent the eventual completion of an asynchronous operation. They allow us to write code that is more concise and easier to read.

Finally, I use callbacks to handle asynchronous programming. Callbacks are functions that are passed as arguments to other functions. They are executed when the asynchronous operation is complete. Callbacks are a great way to handle asynchronous programming, but they can be difficult to debug and maintain.

Overall, I use a combination of async/await, Promises, and callbacks to handle asynchronous programming in JavaScript.


5. What is the difference between a function and a method in JavaScript?

The main difference between a function and a method in JavaScript is that a function is a standalone block of code that can be called from anywhere in the program, while a method is a function that is attached to an object.

A function is a block of code that is written to perform a specific task. It can be called from anywhere in the program, and it can take arguments and return a value. A function can be defined using the function keyword, and it can be invoked by calling its name.

A method is a function that is attached to an object. It is invoked by using the object's name, followed by a period, followed by the method's name. Methods can take arguments and return a value, just like functions. They are usually used to perform operations on the object's properties, or to access other objects.


6. How do you debug a JavaScript application?

Debugging a JavaScript application can be done in a few different ways.

The first step is to use the browser's built-in debugging tools. Most modern browsers have a JavaScript console that can be used to view errors and warnings, as well as to inspect the state of the application. This can be used to identify any syntax errors or other issues that may be causing the application to malfunction.

The second step is to use a debugging tool such as Chrome DevTools or Firebug. These tools allow you to step through the code line by line, inspect variables, and set breakpoints to pause the execution of the code. This can be very helpful in identifying the source of an issue.

The third step is to use a debugging library such as Node Inspector or JSDebugger. These libraries provide more advanced debugging capabilities, such as the ability to set breakpoints, inspect variables, and step through code.

Finally, it is important to use logging statements throughout the code. This can help to identify the source of an issue by providing more information about the state of the application at any given point in time.

By using a combination of these techniques, it is possible to effectively debug a JavaScript application.


7. What is the difference between a closure and a scope in JavaScript?

A closure is a function that has access to the variables and parameters of its outer function, even after the outer function has returned. It is created when a function is declared inside another function and the inner function has access to the variables and parameters of the outer function.

A scope is the set of variables, objects, and functions you have access to. In JavaScript, there are two types of scope: global scope and local scope. Global scope is the set of variables, objects, and functions that are available everywhere in your code. Local scope is the set of variables, objects, and functions that are only available within the current function.

In summary, a closure is a function that has access to the variables and parameters of its outer function, while a scope is the set of variables, objects, and functions you have access to.


8. What is the purpose of the 'new' keyword in JavaScript?

The 'new' keyword in JavaScript is used to create a new instance of an object. It is used to create an object from a constructor function, which is a function that is used to create an object. When the 'new' keyword is used, it creates a new object, sets the constructor of the object to the constructor function, and binds the 'this' keyword to the new object. The 'new' keyword also adds a return statement to the constructor function, which returns the new object. This allows the constructor function to be used to create multiple objects.


9. How do you optimize the performance of a JavaScript application?

Optimizing the performance of a JavaScript application requires a multi-faceted approach.

First, it is important to ensure that the code is written in an efficient manner. This includes writing code that is concise and easy to read, avoiding unnecessary loops and computations, and using the most efficient data structures and algorithms. Additionally, it is important to use the latest language features and libraries to take advantage of performance improvements.

Second, it is important to ensure that the code is properly optimized for the target platform. This includes ensuring that the code is optimized for the specific browser or platform that it is running on, as well as ensuring that the code is optimized for the specific hardware that it is running on.

Third, it is important to ensure that the code is properly optimized for the specific use case. This includes ensuring that the code is optimized for the specific tasks that it is performing, as well as ensuring that the code is optimized for the specific data that it is processing.

Finally, it is important to ensure that the code is properly optimized for the specific environment that it is running in. This includes ensuring that the code is optimized for the specific network conditions that it is running in, as well as ensuring that the code is optimized for the specific hardware and software configurations that it is running in.

By taking a comprehensive approach to optimizing the performance of a JavaScript application, developers can ensure that their applications are running as efficiently as possible.


10. What is the difference between a class and an object in JavaScript?

The difference between a class and an object in JavaScript is that a class is a blueprint or template for creating objects, while an object is an instance of a class. A class is a type of object that defines the structure and behavior of objects of its type. It is a collection of properties and methods that are shared among all objects of the same type. An object is an instance of a class, and it is a concrete entity that contains its own properties and methods.

Classes are used to create objects, and they are defined using the class keyword. Classes can contain properties and methods, and they can also contain constructors, which are special methods that are used to create objects. Objects are created using the new keyword, and they can be used to store data and perform operations.

In JavaScript, classes and objects are closely related, and they are both used to create and manipulate data. Classes are used to define the structure and behavior of objects, while objects are used to store and manipulate data.


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