10 Kubernetes Interview Questions and Answers in 2023

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As Kubernetes continues to become an increasingly popular technology for managing containerized applications, it is important to stay up to date on the latest Kubernetes interview questions and answers. In this blog, we will provide an overview of 10 of the most common Kubernetes interview questions and answers that you may encounter in 2023. We will discuss the topics of Kubernetes architecture, security, and scalability, as well as the best practices for deploying and managing Kubernetes clusters. By the end of this blog, you should have a better understanding of the key concepts and skills needed to answer Kubernetes interview questions.

1. Describe the Kubernetes architecture and explain how it works.

Kubernetes is an open-source container orchestration platform that automates the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. It is designed to provide a unified platform for deploying, managing, and scaling applications in a distributed environment.

Kubernetes is composed of several components, including the Kubernetes Master, the Kubernetes Node, and the Kubernetes API.

The Kubernetes Master is responsible for managing the cluster, including scheduling and managing the nodes. It is composed of several components, including the API server, the scheduler, and the controller manager. The API server is responsible for providing a RESTful interface for interacting with the cluster. The scheduler is responsible for scheduling workloads on the nodes. The controller manager is responsible for managing the state of the cluster.

The Kubernetes Node is responsible for running the workloads. It is composed of several components, including the kubelet, the container runtime, and the kube-proxy. The kubelet is responsible for managing the containers on the node. The container runtime is responsible for running the containers. The kube-proxy is responsible for providing network connectivity between the nodes.

The Kubernetes API is responsible for providing a unified interface for interacting with the cluster. It is composed of several components, including the API server, the scheduler, and the controller manager. The API server is responsible for providing a RESTful interface for interacting with the cluster. The scheduler is responsible for scheduling workloads on the nodes. The controller manager is responsible for managing the state of the cluster.

Kubernetes works by allowing users to define their desired state for their applications and then the Kubernetes platform will ensure that the desired state is maintained. This is done by using the Kubernetes API to communicate with the nodes and the scheduler to ensure that the workloads are running on the correct nodes. The controller manager is responsible for ensuring that the desired state is maintained by monitoring the state of the cluster and making adjustments as needed.


2. What is the purpose of a Kubernetes cluster?

The purpose of a Kubernetes cluster is to provide a platform for deploying, managing, and scaling containerized applications. Kubernetes clusters are composed of a set of nodes, which are physical or virtual machines that run the Kubernetes control plane and application containers. Kubernetes provides a unified platform for deploying, managing, and scaling containerized applications, allowing developers to focus on building applications instead of managing infrastructure. Kubernetes clusters provide a number of features, such as automated deployment, scaling, and self-healing, that make it easier to manage and maintain applications. Kubernetes also provides a number of tools and APIs that allow developers to easily integrate their applications with the cluster. Kubernetes clusters are designed to be highly available and resilient, allowing applications to remain available even in the event of node or network failures.


3. How do you deploy a Kubernetes application?

Deploying a Kubernetes application involves several steps. First, you need to create a Kubernetes cluster, which is a set of nodes that will run the application. You can use a managed Kubernetes service such as Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) or Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS) to create the cluster.

Once the cluster is created, you need to create the Kubernetes objects that will define the application. This includes creating Deployments, Services, and Ingresses. Deployments define the application containers and how they should be deployed. Services define how the application will be exposed to the outside world. Ingresses define how external traffic will be routed to the application.

Once the Kubernetes objects are created, you can deploy the application to the cluster. This is done using the kubectl command-line tool. You can use the kubectl create command to create the objects, and the kubectl apply command to apply the changes to the cluster.

Finally, you can monitor the application using the Kubernetes dashboard or the kubectl get command. This will allow you to see the status of the application and make sure it is running correctly.

Once the application is running, you can scale it up or down as needed. This can be done using the kubectl scale command.

Deploying a Kubernetes application is a complex process, but with the right tools and knowledge, it can be done quickly and easily.


4. What is the difference between a Kubernetes pod and a deployment?

A Kubernetes pod is a group of one or more containers that are deployed together on the same host. A pod is the smallest deployable unit in Kubernetes and is used to manage the lifecycle of the containers within it. A pod can contain multiple containers, such as an application container, a sidecar container for logging, and a service discovery container.

A Kubernetes deployment is a higher-level abstraction that manages the deployment and scaling of a set of pods. A deployment is responsible for creating and updating the desired number of replicas of a pod. It also provides a way to roll back to a previous version of the pod if needed. A deployment can also be used to define the desired state of the pod, such as the number of replicas, the labels, and the resources that should be allocated to the pod.


5. What is the purpose of a Kubernetes service?

A Kubernetes service is an abstraction layer that allows for the deployment and management of applications in a Kubernetes cluster. It provides a way to access and manage the underlying pods and containers that make up an application. It also provides a way to expose the application to external users and services.

Kubernetes services provide a way to define and manage the network communication between the application components. It allows for the creation of a virtual IP address that can be used to access the application from outside the cluster. It also provides a way to load balance traffic between the application components.

Kubernetes services also provide a way to define and manage the application's security policies. It allows for the creation of network policies that can be used to control access to the application. It also provides a way to define and manage the application's authentication and authorization policies.

Finally, Kubernetes services provide a way to monitor the application's performance and health. It allows for the creation of metrics and logging that can be used to track the application's performance and health. It also provides a way to define and manage the application's scaling policies.


6. How do you debug a Kubernetes application?

Debugging a Kubernetes application requires a few steps. First, you need to identify the source of the issue. This can be done by examining the application logs, resource utilization, and other metrics. Once the source of the issue is identified, you can use the Kubernetes command line tool, kubectl, to investigate the application. You can use kubectl to view the application's configuration, check the status of the application's resources, and view the application's logs. You can also use kubectl to scale the application up or down, or to restart the application.

Once you have identified the source of the issue, you can use the Kubernetes dashboard to debug the application. The dashboard provides a graphical view of the application's resources and their utilization. It also provides detailed information about the application's configuration and the status of its resources.

Finally, you can use the Kubernetes API to debug the application. The API provides access to the application's configuration and the status of its resources. You can use the API to view the application's logs, scale the application up or down, or restart the application.

By using these tools, you can quickly and effectively debug a Kubernetes application.


7. What is the purpose of a Kubernetes namespace?

The purpose of a Kubernetes namespace is to provide a way to logically separate resources within a Kubernetes cluster. A namespace provides a scope for names, allowing different teams to use the same resource names without conflict. It also allows for resource isolation, so that resources in one namespace are not visible to other namespaces. This allows for better resource management and security, as resources can be isolated from each other. Additionally, namespaces can be used to control access to resources, allowing for different levels of access to be granted to different users or teams. Finally, namespaces can be used to control resource quotas, allowing for limits to be set on the amount of resources that can be used by a particular namespace.


8. How do you scale a Kubernetes application?

Scaling a Kubernetes application involves increasing the number of replicas of a given deployment. This can be done manually or automatically.

Manual scaling involves manually increasing the number of replicas of a deployment using the kubectl scale command. This command takes the deployment name and the desired number of replicas as arguments.

Automatic scaling involves setting up a Horizontal Pod Autoscaler (HPA). This is done by creating an HPA object in the Kubernetes cluster. The HPA object defines the deployment to be scaled, the desired number of replicas, and the conditions that will trigger the scaling. The conditions can be based on CPU utilization, memory utilization, or custom metrics.

Once the HPA is set up, Kubernetes will automatically scale the deployment based on the conditions defined in the HPA object.

In addition to scaling the number of replicas, Kubernetes also provides the ability to scale the resources allocated to a deployment. This is done by modifying the resource requests and limits defined in the deployment object. This allows for more fine-grained control over the resources allocated to a deployment.


9. What is the purpose of a Kubernetes ingress?

The purpose of a Kubernetes ingress is to provide an entry point for external traffic into a Kubernetes cluster. It acts as a reverse proxy, routing external requests to the appropriate services within the cluster. Ingress can also provide load balancing, SSL termination, and name-based virtual hosting. Ingress can be used to expose multiple services under the same IP address and port, and can be configured to provide name-based virtual hosting, allowing multiple domains to be served from the same IP address. Ingress can also be used to provide authentication and authorization for external requests. Ingress can be configured to provide SSL termination, allowing external requests to be served over HTTPS without the need for the services within the cluster to handle SSL. Ingress can also provide load balancing, allowing requests to be distributed across multiple services within the cluster.


10. How do you secure a Kubernetes cluster?

Securing a Kubernetes cluster requires a multi-faceted approach. The first step is to ensure that the cluster is properly configured and that all nodes are running the latest version of Kubernetes. This includes making sure that all nodes are running the same version of Kubernetes and that all nodes are running the same security patches.

The next step is to configure authentication and authorization. This includes setting up authentication methods such as OAuth2, OpenID Connect, or LDAP, and setting up authorization policies such as RBAC or ABAC.

The third step is to configure network security. This includes setting up network policies to control traffic between nodes, setting up firewalls to protect the cluster from external threats, and setting up encryption for data in transit.

The fourth step is to configure logging and monitoring. This includes setting up logging and monitoring tools such as Prometheus, Grafana, and ELK stack to monitor the cluster and detect any suspicious activity.

Finally, the fifth step is to configure security scanning. This includes setting up security scanning tools such as Sysdig Secure, Aqua Security, and Twistlock to scan the cluster for any vulnerabilities.

By following these steps, you can ensure that your Kubernetes cluster is secure and protected from external threats.


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