10 Performance Engineer Interview Questions and Answers for backend engineers

flat art illustration of a backend engineer

1. How do you measure application and system performance?

As a Performance Engineer, I use several methods to measure application and system performance:

  1. Load Testing: I create test scenarios that replicate real-world user behavior and test the system's response time and throughput under various loads. For instance, I conducted a load test on a mobile banking app and found that its response time decreased by 50% when the user load increased from 100 to 5000.

  2. End-to-End Monitoring: I use tools like AppDynamics and New Relic to monitor end-to-end response time and identify performance bottlenecks. For example, I monitored a payment gateway and discovered that its response times were slower for transactions from some regions, and I recommended a CDN to reduce the latency.

  3. Code Profiling: I use tools like VisualVM and Java Mission Control to identify code-level issues that impact performance. For example, I analyzed a Java web application and found a memory leak that caused server crashes, and I fixed it by optimizing the GC settings.

  4. Apdex Score: I use Apdex score to measure user satisfaction with application performance. For instance, I monitored a shopping app and found that its Apdex score increased fr om 0.7 to 0.9 after optimizing the database queries and reducing the page load time.

2. Can you explain the difference between load testing and stress testing?

Load testing and stress testing are two crucial types of performance testing that assess the performance, scalability, and reliability of a system under various conditions.

  • Load testing: involves testing a system under simulated load conditions to determine how efficient the system is working under anticipated normal production load. This could include testing the system with a predefined number of virtual users, requests per second, or transactions per minute.
  • Stress testing: on the other hand, involves testing a system beyond its normal capacity, to see how it copes when pushed to its limits. This could involve testing a system with many more requests per second than it would typically handle or simulating a sudden surge in traffic beyond its maximum capacity.

Load testing helps to identify bottlenecks in the system that might not be visible under normal working conditions. In contrast, stress testing helps to determine the ability of the system to handle extreme conditions, and the point at which it will break or degrade. By conducting stress tests, the team can observe how the system fails and analyze whether solutions such as increasing resources or optimizing code are required.

To illustrate, let's consider a hypothetical e-commerce site that has about 500,000 unique visitors every day. Through load testing, we can simulate the traffic that the site receives and verify that it can handle the expected traffic. We can monitor key performance metrics like page-loads, transactions per minute, and errors per second to identify inefficiencies in the system.

If we decided to stress test the same e-commerce site, we would simulate traffic beyond its capacity, let's say 1,000,000 unique visitors within an hour. This would test the site's ability to handle sudden surge traffic levels. The team would look out for errors, crashes, and response times to confirm the system's maximum limit. With this information, the team can make decisions about future optimizations or additional infrastructure investments.

3. What tools and techniques do you use to optimize performance?

As a performance engineer, I have worked with a variety of tools and techniques to optimize application performance. Some of the tools I commonly use include:

  1. Load testing tools: I have experience with tools such as JMeter, Gatling, and LoadRunner to simulate heavy user traffic and stress testing of applications. These tools help to identify performance bottlenecks and ensure that the application can handle high levels of traffic.
  2. Profiling tools: I use profiling tools like YourKit and JProfiler to measure CPU usage, memory usage, and other performance metrics. These tools help to identify areas in the application where optimizations can be made.
  3. A/B testing: I utilize A/B testing to compare the performance of different application versions or configurations to see which ones perform better, and use that data to optimize performance.
  4. Application monitoring: I use tools like New Relic and AppDynamics to monitor application performance and catch issues before they become problems. These tools help to track down issues in real-time and provide actionable data to optimize performance.

In addition to these tools, I also use various optimization techniques, such as:

  • Caching: I have experience with implementing caching techniques like the use of Memcached or Redis to optimize the application response time by reducing the number of requests to the server.
  • Code optimization: I analyze the code of applications to identify areas of improvement and make specific and targeted improvements. For example, removing unnecessary code or loops that negatively impact performance.
  • Database optimization: I take care to optimize databases by creating indexes, optimizing queries, and reducing the size of the database. This helps to improve application response time and overall performance.

Through the use of these tools and techniques, I have been able to achieve significant performance improvements in my current role as a performance engineer. For instance, I was able to decrease the average page load time of a web application by 50% for clients, resulting in an improvement in user experience and ultimately leading to increased engagement and satisfaction.

4. Can you describe a particularly challenging performance issue you faced and how you resolved it?

During my time at XYZ Company, I faced a challenging performance issue with one of our web applications. Our load testing showed that the application was suffering from long response times and high error rates as user traffic increased. After investigating the application's code and infrastructure, I determined that the root cause was inefficient database queries.

  1. First, I worked with the development team to optimize the queries and reduce their execution time.
  2. Next, I implemented a caching layer to reduce the frequency of queries hitting the database and speed up the application's response times.
  3. We also implemented horizontal scaling by adding more servers to our application cluster, allowing us to handle more traffic without affecting performance.

After these changes were implemented, we re-ran our load tests and the results were impressive. The application's response times had decreased by 50%, and the error rate had dropped to almost zero even at peak traffic.

This experience taught me the importance of identifying and addressing performance issues proactively. It also reaffirmed my belief that collaboration between development and performance teams is crucial to delivering high-quality, high-performing applications.

5. How do you stay up-to-date with the latest performance engineering trends and technologies?

As a Performance Engineer, I understand the importance of staying up-to-date with the latest trends and technologies. Here are a few ways in which I stay informed:

  1. Blogs: I regularly read performance engineering blogs such as Performance Engineering in the Cloud and The Performance Engineer, which keeps me informed about the latest trends and technologies in the industry. Additionally, I am a regular contributor to the Performance Engineering Stack Exchange community.
  2. Conferences: I attend conferences like Perform, Velocity, and re:Invent, where I learn from industry experts and network with professionals in the field. In 2022, I attended Perform and learned about the newest tool for API monitoring that immediately increased our team’s performance by 30%.
  3. Industry Research: I also keep up-to-date with the latest research in the performance engineering industry by reading the latest whitepapers and research reports. For example, I read a study published in the Journal of Computer Networks and Communications on predictive security software that decreased load testing time by at least 60%. Incorporating this finding saved our team 10 hours of testing each week.
  4. Training: When I encounter performance engineering trends that I'm unfamiliar with, I research online courses, attend webinars or workshops like LoadRunner training courses that will support my professional growth. In 2023, I will enroll in The Complete Performance Testing and Engineering Course on Udemy.
  5. Collaboration: Finally, I regularly collaborate with other performance engineers to understand their approaches, share experience, and learn from one another. Through this, we no longer spend 1 hour daily on performance issues on our infrastructure.

By following the above strategies, I keep up with the latest performance engineering trends, technologies, and best practices. In turn, I am confident that my knowledge and expertise are current and valuable to any team I may work with.

6. Can you share a time when you collaborated with development or QA teams to diagnose a performance problem?

During my time at XYZ company, I worked closely with both the development and QA teams to diagnose and solve an issue in our app's loading time.

  1. First, I collaborated with the development team to understand the app's architecture and pinpoint potential areas for optimization.
  2. Next, I worked with the QA team to gather data and test different scenarios to replicate the slow loading time.
  3. Through our collaborative efforts, we were able to identify a bottleneck in the database query that was causing the issue.
  4. To fix this, I suggested implementing database indexing and caching, and worked with the dev team to make the necessary changes.
  5. As a result, we were able to decrease the app's loading time by 50%, resulting in positive feedback from users and increased app usage.

This experience not only taught me the importance of cross-functional collaboration, but also how data-driven decision making and continuous optimization can drive significant improvements in an app's performance.

7. How do you ensure that performance testing is integrated throughout the development lifecycle?

As a performance engineer, I strongly believe that performance testing should not be a one-time activity. It should be integrated throughout the software development lifecycle. Here are the steps that I take to ensure that:

  1. Collaboration with Development Team - I work closely with the development team to ensure that performance requirements are built into the software architecture. This ensures that the software is being designed to meet the end-user's performance expectations from the start of the development cycle.

  2. Early Performance testing - Once the initial design is in place, I begin performance testing to identify any issues as early as possible. The earlier issues are identified, the easier they are to fix.

  3. Automated Performance testing - I use automated scripts to ensure that performance testing is not just a one-off activity but a continuous process in every stage of software development. An automated process can quickly detect potential performance issues and regressions.

  4. Continuous Integration - I ensure that performance testing is integrated into the continuous integration pipeline. Every build goes through a performance testing suite, which quickly identifies any performance regressions.

  5. Performance Monitoring - I keep a close eye on the software's performance using performance monitoring tools, providing useful insights on how the software is performing, and providing metrics on various parameters such as CPU utilization or response time

  6. Reporting and Feedback - I develop detailed reports that highlight any performance issues that have been identified, which are then shared with the development team. I also provide useful feedback on how to resolve performance issues.

  7. Iterative Performance Testing - I conduct regular performance testing throughout the software development cycle in order to ensure continuous improvement. This not only eliminates performance regressions but also enhances the software's performance.

Using these steps has enabled me to identify potential performance issues at an earlier stage of software development, thereby reducing deployment time by 25%, enhancing the software's performance by 15% for 99th percentile response time and saving 50% in performance related costs.

8. Can you walk us through the steps you take when conducting a performance analysis?

When conducting a performance analysis, I take the following steps:

  1. Define performance goals and requirements: I ensure that I have a clear understanding of the project's performance requirements and goals. I work with the stakeholders to define acceptable performance benchmarks.
  2. Identify performance metrics: I identify key performance metrics such as response time, throughput, and error rate. I use a variety of tools to collect this data, including APM and monitoring tools.
  3. Generate load: I create a realistic load scenario that simulates expected usage. This can include generating traffic using synthetic tools or using production traffic data, depending on the project.
  4. Analyze results: I analyze the results to identify bottlenecks, slow areas, and other performance issues. I use tools like flame graphs and profiling tools to help pinpoint areas of improvement.
  5. Troubleshoot: I work with the development team to troubleshoot performance issues. We work together to identify the root cause of the issue, whether it is a code-level issue or a resource constraint.
  6. Optimize: Once we identify the root cause of the issue, I work with the team to make necessary optimizations. In one project, after identifying a bottleneck, I optimized the database queries, resulting in a 20% improvement in response times.
  7. Iterate: Finally, I rinse and repeat the process. I continuously monitor and analyze the system, making tweaks and optimizations as necessary, to ensure continued optimal performance.

Overall, my approach to performance analysis is data-driven and iterative, ensuring that the system is optimized for performance and that any issues are addressed promptly.

9. Can you explain how you would go about benchmarking a new system?

When benchmarking a new system, I would follow these steps:

  1. Identify the benchmark metrics: The first step is to identify the key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics that will be used to evaluate the system's performance. For example, I would look at the system's response time, throughput, and resource utilization.
  2. Choose benchmarking tools: Once the benchmark metrics have been identified, I would choose the benchmarking tools. Depending on the system being tested, I would select either open-source or commercial tools. For example, I might use Apache JMeter for load testing, wrk for HTTP benchmarking, and sysbench for CPU and memory benchmarking.
  3. Create benchmarks: After picking the benchmarking tools, I would create the benchmarks. I would create benchmarks that simulate real-world scenarios like: simulating users accessing the system to validate the response time, emulating different types of requests to test the throughput, and creating heavy loads to test resource utilization capacity.
  4. Run the benchmarks: Next, I would run the benchmarks to collect data. During the benchmarking process, I would monitor CPU, memory, network, and disk usage. I would also monitor the system's response time and throughput to ensure the system is meeting the expected KPIs.
  5. Analyze and evaluate the results: Lastly, I would analyze and evaluate the results collected during the benchmarking process. I would use the metrics identified in step one to determine whether the system is meeting the performance standards. For instance, I would ensure that response times are within the acceptable range, that throughput is within target, and that resource utilization is not causing significant performance bottlenecks.

By following these steps, I will be able to benchmark the new system effectively and get data that can be used to make an informed decision, such as scaling the system. In my previous role, I took this approach when benchmarking a new e-commerce website called StoreX. The results were impressive. We discovered that the website was taking approximately 20 seconds to load when multiple users accessed it. We improved the website load time to less than 5 seconds by modifying the configuration of the server and the code. This led to a significant increase in conversion rates and higher customer satisfaction ratings.

10. Are there any performance metrics that you regularly track and report on? If so, what are they?

Yes, as a Performance Engineer, regularly tracking and reporting on performance metrics is crucial in identifying bottlenecks and improving overall system performance. Some of the metrics that I regularly track and report on include:

  1. Response time: This measures the time taken for a system to process a request and is a critical metric to ensure that systems meet their performance expectations. For example, in my previous role, I helped decrease the average response time for the login page of a web application from 10 seconds to 2 seconds.
  2. Throughput: This measures the number of requests that a system can handle in a certain period of time. I ensured that the system could handle an increase in user load by improving throughput from 1000 requests per minute to 5000 requests per minute.
  3. Error rate: This measures the percentage of requests that fail due to errors. I decreased the error rate of a system from 10% to less than 1% by identifying and fixing database issues.
  4. Memory usage: This measures how much memory a system is utilizing. By optimizing and reducing memory usage, I was able to reduce server costs by 50% while maintaining system performance.
  5. CPU usage: This measures how much CPU a system is using. By optimizing CPU usage, I was able to reduce server load and improve response time by 30%.

Overall, regularly tracking and reporting on performance metrics is essential for ensuring that a system is performing optimally and meeting its performance expectations.


Congratulations on making it through these 10 Performance Engineer interview questions and answers! Your next step now is to prepare a killer cover letter and resume. Don't fret, we've got you covered. Check out our guide on writing a captivating cover letter and an impressive resume for backend engineers. And if you're ready to start searching for remote backend engineer jobs, look no further than our job board at remoterocketship.com. Happy job hunting!

Looking for a remote tech job? Search our job board for 30,000+ remote jobs
Search Remote Jobs
Built by Lior Neu-ner. I'd love to hear your feedback — Get in touch via DM or lior@remoterocketship.com
Jobs by Title
Remote Account Executive jobsRemote Accounting, Payroll & Financial Planning jobsRemote Administration jobsRemote Android Engineer jobsRemote Backend Engineer jobsRemote Business Operations & Strategy jobsRemote Chief of Staff jobsRemote Compliance jobsRemote Content Marketing jobsRemote Content Writer jobsRemote Copywriter jobsRemote Customer Success jobsRemote Customer Support jobsRemote Data Analyst jobsRemote Data Engineer jobsRemote Data Scientist jobsRemote DevOps jobsRemote Ecommerce jobsRemote Engineering Manager jobsRemote Executive Assistant jobsRemote Full-stack Engineer jobsRemote Frontend Engineer jobsRemote Game Engineer jobsRemote Graphics Designer jobsRemote Growth Marketing jobsRemote Hardware Engineer jobsRemote Human Resources jobsRemote iOS Engineer jobsRemote Infrastructure Engineer jobsRemote IT Support jobsRemote Legal jobsRemote Machine Learning Engineer jobsRemote Marketing jobsRemote Operations jobsRemote Performance Marketing jobsRemote Product Analyst jobsRemote Product Designer jobsRemote Product Manager jobsRemote Project & Program Management jobsRemote Product Marketing jobsRemote QA Engineer jobsRemote SDET jobsRemote Recruitment jobsRemote Risk jobsRemote Sales jobsRemote Scrum Master + Agile Coach jobsRemote Security Engineer jobsRemote SEO Marketing jobsRemote Social Media & Community jobsRemote Software Engineer jobsRemote Solutions Engineer jobsRemote Support Engineer jobsRemote Technical Writer jobsRemote Technical Product Manager jobsRemote User Researcher jobs