10 Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers for QA Engineers

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If you're preparing for qa engineer interviews, see also our comprehensive interview questions and answers for the following qa engineer specializations:

1. What do you understand by the term manual testing?

Manual testing refers to the process of executing test cases manually, without the use of any automation tools. It involves testing each and every feature of the software application to ensure that it performs as expected and meets the requirements outlined by the project stakeholders. This testing process involves creating test cases, executing them and recording the results. Manual testing is a critical aspect of software development, as it helps to ensure that the software is reliable, functional and bug-free.

Manual testing requires the tester to have a deep understanding of the requirements and functionality of the software application. In addition, the tester must be able to think critically and creatively to identify potential issues or bugs that might be missed by automated testing tools. Manual testing is also important in projects where the requirements are constantly changing, as it allows the tester to quickly adapt and modify their testing approach as needed.

Manual testing can be time-consuming and labor-intensive, but it is essential for ensuring that the software meets the needs of the end-users. In some cases, manual testing has led to significant improvements in software quality. For example, a project I worked on required extensive manual testing due to the complexity of the software. Through careful testing and analysis, we were able to identify several critical bugs that could have caused significant issues for end-users. By addressing these issues, we were able to improve the overall quality of the software and ensure a better user experience.

2. What are the various testing techniques and methods that you have used in manual testing? Can you explain them briefly?

During my experience as a QA Engineer, I have used various testing techniques and methods in manual testing. Below are some of the most common techniques:

  1. Black Box Testing: This technique involves testing the functionality of an application without knowing the internal implementation. I have used this technique to test a payment gateway system and we were able to reduce payment errors by 30%.
  2. White Box Testing: This testing technique requires knowledge of the internal structure of the software, including the code. I have used this technique to test the integrity of a SQL database and identified a bug in the system that was causing data to be deleted unexpectedly.
  3. Integration Testing: This technique tests the integration points between different modules of an application. In one project, I used integration testing to ensure that different parts of a web application were communicating correctly and we were able to reduce the number of bugs in production by over 50%.
  4. Performance Testing: This technique tests how an application performs under different load conditions. I have used performance testing to test a website that was receiving high traffic and we were able to optimize the application to handle the load without crashing.
  5. Regression Testing: This technique involves retesting the application after changes have been made to it. I have used regression testing to identify a bug in the login feature of an application where users were not being redirected to the correct page after login.

Using these techniques, I have been able to ensure the quality of the software I was testing and reduce the number of bugs that were found in production. By testing early in the development cycle and using a combination of techniques, we were able to identify and fix issues before they became bigger problems for the end-users.

3. What is your approach to writing test cases, executing them and reporting defects?

My approach to writing test cases is to first thoroughly review the requirements and user stories to ensure I have a clear understanding of the expected behavior of the application. From there, I create a detailed test plan outlining various test scenarios and cases that will cover all aspects of functionality.

Once the test plan is created, I design and write the individual test cases, ensuring that they are clear, concise, and cover all necessary steps. I then execute the test cases, recording any defects or unexpected behavior.

For defect reporting, I use a standardized format that includes a clear and descriptive title, steps to reproduce, expected versus actual results, and any supporting materials such as screenshots or logs. I assign each defect a priority and severity level to help the development team prioritize and address the issues.

By following this approach, I have consistently been able to discover critical defects before they reach production. In my previous role as a QA engineer at XYZ Company, my attention to detail and thoroughness in writing and executing test cases resulted in a 30% reduction in customer-reported defects over the course of six months.

4. How do you ensure that the software products meet quality standards and customer requirements?

Ensuring that software products meet quality standards and customer requirements has always been my top priority. To achieve it, I utilize various techniques that include:

  1. Understanding customer requirements thoroughly: I start by breaking down customer requirements into smaller components to understand what the clients expect from the end product. Once I have understood these requirements, I create a detailed plan and execute it accordingly.
  2. Designing Test cases: Once I have a thorough understanding of the customer requirements, I create detailed test cases to ensure that each part of the software product is tested. I also incorporate negative testing scenarios which mimic real-world scenarios to ensure that the software is robust enough.
  3. Automating Tests: I automate tests where it makes sense to do so. For instance, regression tests must be automated for efficiency to avoid the duplication of effort. This helps me spend more time and effort testing the areas where a human touch is crucial.
  4. Collaborating with relevant stakeholders: I work closely with relevant stakeholders such as project managers, developers, and business analysts to ensure that we're all on the same page throughout the software development cycle. This helps me identify defects early and fix them before they escalate into bigger problems.
  5. Conducting thorough reviews: I conduct thorough reviews of the software to ensure that it meets the required quality standards. I identify bottlenecks and loopholes that may impact the overall quality of the software and address any issues raised.
  6. Tracking defects: I track defects, analyze them, and prioritize them based on customer requirements to ensure that the most critical issues are addressed first. I then retest resolved defects to ensure that they are indeed fixed.

Through these techniques, I have been able to increase the quality of software products that I've worked on. For instance, in my last project, we increased the number of bugs caught in the initial testing phase by 50%, which resulted in a reduced turn-around time for issue resolution, improved customer satisfaction, and reduced post-release defects.

5. What metrics do you track and use to assess test quality?


  1. Defect Density:
    • This metric is computed as the number of defects identified in a module or release divided by the size of the module or release in KLOC or function points.
    • For instance, in our last project release, we identified 30 defects in a module, which is 2000 KLOC, resulting in a defect density of 1.5%. We aim to keep defect density below 2%.
  2. Test Case Effectiveness:
    • Test case effectiveness is calculated as the number of defects found in a module divided by the number of test cases executed in that module.
    • For instance, if we executed 100 test cases in a module and found 10 defects, our test case effectiveness would be 10%.
  3. Code Coverage:
    • Code coverage measures the proportion of code that is executed during testing.
    • In our last project, we achieved a code coverage of 80%, which exceeded our target of 70%.
  4. Test Execution Time:
    • Test execution time is the amount of time taken to complete the test suite for a particular module or release.
    • In our last project, we automated several tests, which reduced our test execution time by 30%.
  5. Customer Satisfaction:
    • We track customer satisfaction through feedback surveys and NPS scores.
    • Our last project received an NPS score of 80, indicating high customer satisfaction.

6. How do you keep track of bug reports and ensure they are resolved timely?

As a QA Engineer, I believe that keeping track of bug reports is vital to ensuring timely resolution of issues. One way I do this is by using bug tracking software such as Jira. When a bug is reported, I immediately create a ticket in Jira detailing the issue and assigning it to the appropriate developer or team member. I also prioritize each ticket based on its severity and impact on the overall system.

  1. Firstly, I ensure that all critical bugs are addressed immediately, so that there is no negative impact on the user experience. These bugs are usually given top priority and are resolved within the same day or the next working day.
  2. Next, bugs with medium priority are dealt with within two to three business days, depending on the complexity of the issue. I consistently follow up with the assigned developer to ensure efficient and timely resolution.
  3. Finally, low priority bugs are addressed within a week, unless there are more critical bugs to attend to. I ensure that all bug reports in the system are resolved post-release to ensure smooth operation of the product.
  4. I also make sure that all communication regarding the bugs in question is documented in the relevant ticket. For example, if the developer needs to ask a follow-up question or provide an update on the status of a bug, we communicate through the ticket so that all parties involved can stay updated on the issue. This helps to ensure transparency, and prevents any misunderstandings.

    Overall, my goal is to effectively track and resolve bug reports in a timely manner, ensuring that the product meets the required standard of quality.

    7. Have you ever used any testing tools in manual testing? If yes, which ones and how familiar are you with them?

    Sample Answer:

    Yes, I have experience working with several testing tools in manual testing. The tools that I am most familiar with include:

    1. HP Quality Center: I have used HP Quality Center to manage test cases, track defects, and generate reports. During my previous project, I created a test suite in HP QC for the entire functionality of an e-commerce platform which contained over 500 test cases. I also used HP QC to track and manage bugs along with emailing reports to the stakeholders. Through my experience, I have become quite comfortable using the tool and consider myself an expert in it.
    2. Jira: Jira is a versatile tool that I have used for manual testing as well as bug tracking. I have worked on projects where the entire testing process was tracked through Jira. I created test cases and shared them with team members, and used Jira to log bugs and track their status until they were resolved. In one instance, after the release of the new version of the application, we were able to reduce the number of open bugs by 25%, thanks to our rigorous testing and the efficient use of Jira.
    3. Selenium: Although Selenium is generally used for automation testing, I have also used it for manual testing at times. For example, in one project where we needed to test a functionality repeatedly, I created a script in Selenium to streamline the process. This saved us a significant amount of time and effort.

    In summary, I am proficient in using HP Quality Center, Jira, and Selenium, along with other testing tools, to perform manual testing. My extensive experience with these tools has enabled me to ensure efficient and effective testing processes and deliver high-quality results.

    8. How do you ensure that the testing process is efficient and effective in meeting project timelines and budgets?

    As a QA Engineer, I believe that it is crucial to ensure that the testing process is efficient and effective in meeting project timelines and budgets. Here are some ways that I achieve this goal:

    1. Creating a comprehensive test plan: Before starting any testing, I make sure to develop a detailed test plan that outlines the testing scope, objectives, and deliverables. This helps me to stay focused and ensures that testing is aligned with project timelines and budgets.
    2. Identifying high-impact test scenarios: To optimize the testing process, I prioritize testing scenarios that have the highest impact on the overall quality of the product. This approach saves time and ensures that the testing process is efficient.
    3. Atomizing test cases: Instead of testing large components or features all at once, I break them down into smaller test cases. This way, I can measure progress and identify issues more quickly, which helps me to estimate timelines more accurately.
    4. Collaborating with other teams: I believe that collaboration is critical for successful testing. By working closely with developers and project managers, I can understand their priorities and constraints. This allows me to modify the testing process as needed to meet project timelines and budgets.
    5. Using automation: In some cases, manual testing can be a time-consuming and labor-intensive process that can lead to budget overruns. To address this issue, I use test automation tools to speed up the testing process and to reduce the likelihood of errors.
    6. Tracking and reporting progress: I track and report the testing results regularly, using metrics such as defect density, test coverage, and test execution times. By doing so, I can identify any bottlenecks or areas of improvement and make timely adjustments as needed.
    7. Continuously evaluating and improving the testing process: I believe that testing is an ongoing process, and there is always room for improvement. By continuously evaluating the testing process and incorporating feedback from all stakeholders, I can optimize the testing process and ensure that it meets project timelines and budgets.

    9. Can you describe a complex bug you have found during your testing experience and how you resolved it?

    During my time as a QA Engineer at ABC Corporation, I came across a complex bug that was affecting the functionality of the software. The bug was related to the algorithm that was used to generate reports based on user inputs. Users were reporting that the data in the reports was not accurate and was not matching the data that they had entered.

    To resolve the issue, I started by analyzing the code and the database to understand what was happening. I found that there was a flaw in the way the algorithm was calculating the data for the reports. It was not taking into account some of the edge cases that could occur when users entered certain types of data.

    To resolve the issue, I worked with the development team to write additional code to handle these edge cases. We also made changes to the database schema to ensure that the data was being properly stored and retrieved.

    After making these changes, I retested the software and found that the reports were now accurate and matching the user inputs. I also ran a regression test to ensure that the bug fix did not affect any other part of the software, and everything was working as expected.

    As a result of my efforts, the bug was fixed within two weeks, and we were able to roll out the updated software to the users. This resulted in a significant increase in user satisfaction, as they were now able to generate accurate reports for their data inputs.

    10. How do you ensure that the application or software you test is user-friendly?

    Ensuring that the application or software I test is user-friendly is an essential part of my testing process. Here's the approach I take:

    1. First, I familiarize myself with the goals and expectations of the application. I read through the requirements, user stories, and any other documentation to gain an understanding of the intended user experience.

    2. Next, I perform usability testing throughout the testing process. I simulate real-world scenarios and ensure that the application is intuitive and easy to navigate for the end-user. If any usability issues are discovered, I document them and work with the development team to resolve them.

    3. Additionally, I gather feedback from real users through surveys, focus groups, or interviews. This feedback provides valuable insights into how users interact with the software and can help identify areas for improvement.

    4. I also pay attention to industry standards and best practices for user interfaces. For example, I make sure that the application adheres to accessibility guidelines and utilizes common design patterns.

    5. Lastly, I track user satisfaction metrics, such as customer retention rates and Net Promoter Scores, to ensure that the application is meeting user needs and expectations. For example, in my previous role at XYZ company, I implemented a new testing process that resulted in a 10% increase in customer retention rates for our flagship product.

    Overall, my goal is to ensure that the software is not only functional but also enjoyable to use. By incorporating user feedback and adhering to best practices, I can confidently say that the applications I test are user-friendly.


    Being a Quality Assurance Engineer requires in-depth knowledge and experience in manual testing. The interview process can be intimidating, but preparing well can increase your chances of success. We have provided 10 common manual testing interview questions along with their answers to give you a head start. However, this is just the beginning.

    To increase your chances of getting hired, it is necessary to write a great cover letter. Check out our guide on how to write a great cover letter.

    You should also prepare an impressive quality assurance testing CV. Visit our guide on how to prepare an impressive quality assurance testing CV.

    If you're looking for a new job, don't forget to search through our remote Quality Assurance Testing job board. Good luck with your job search!

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